Lying Research, Monologue, Screenwriting and the Audience


“What is a lie?

Lying is a form of deception, but not all forms of deception are lies.

Lying is giving some information while believing it to be untrue, intending to deceive by doing so.

A lie has three essential features:

  • A lie communicates some information
  • The liar intends to deceive or mislead
  • The liar believes that what they are ‘saying’ is not true

There are some features that people think are part of lying but aren’t actually necessary:

  • A lie does not have to give false information
  • A lies does not have to be told with a bad (malicious) intention – white lies are an example of lies told with a good intention

This definition says that what makes a lie a lie is that the liar intends to deceive (or at least to mislead) the person they are lying to. It says nothing about whether the information given is true or false.

This definition covers ordinary cases of lying and these two odd cases as well:

  • the case where someone inadvertently gives true information while believing that they’re telling a lie
    • I want the last helping of pie for myself, so I lie to you that there is a worm in it. When I later eat that piece of pie I discover that there really is a worm in it
  • the case where nobody is deceived by me because they know that I always tell lies.

Here are some visual examples of what people do when they lie. I’m sure some of those will become very usefull to me.

Eyes darting back and forth

Rapid blinking

Closing eyes for more than one second at a time

Looking up to the right

Looking directly to the right

Looking down to the right

Bunched skin beneath and wrinkles beside the eyes

Face touching

Pursed lips

Excessive sweating


Head shaking

As an example of a lie in animation I thought of the moment from “Brave” when Merida lies to her mum about the ingridients of the magic cake


“Monologue in theatre is a speech presented by a single character, most often to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience.

Interior monologue involves a character externalizing their thoughts so that the audience can witness experiences that would otherwise be mostly internal. In contrast, a dramatic monologue involves one character speaking to another character. Monologues can also be divided along the lines of active and narrative monologues. In an active monologue a character is using their speech to achieve a clear goal. Narrative monologues simply involve a character telling a story and can often be identified by the fact that they are in the past tense.

I’ve came across the example of the monologue from the film “Gone Girl” which I’ve seen a few years ago and I found really good. This piece is from the beginning of the film and I think that this monologue is so well written that it really allowes the audience to get in to the story

Now for the example of Interior Monologue I thought of Kronk from “Emperors New Groove” where we see a conversation of him with his good and bad self (I know they have bodies and stuff but it is still himself). And this shows us the great conflict which character can have with himself.


Thinking about writting my script I swam through the internet looking for some tips. First I found out that script writing and screenwriting are two different things.

“Script Writing

Script writing is the process of writing dialogue which can be used in talk shows, news programs, sports broadcasts and infotainment programs. It is also correct to call writing a script for a movie or a narrative TV show script writing, but the script usually involves more than just character descriptions and dialogue. Script writing doesn’t involve discussing the visuals of a TV show or a movie. This is a more specific type of script writing which is called screenwriting.


Screenwriting is also a process of writing a script, but this is only used for filmmaking that have narrative elements that involve dramatic elements and other components of the film that need to be seen on the screen to serve the overall narrative like the setting, the lighting and movements. Screenwriting provides the visuals that complement what the characters are doing and saying. The mood accentuates the drama or humor that the characters are executing based on the script.

Then I found this really cool video about the importancy of the screenwriter which made me realise how much more I still have to work on my ability of screenwriting. The program looks at the film “Gone Girl”(same film as in the Monologue) and it made me wanna watch it again cause I’m sure that the second time I’ll see much more.

Another very usefull video I’ve found (the same author) about the importancy of the screenplay. This time author is looking at “Moonrise Kingdom” which is a perfect example for analysing Wes Anderson’s style. I find this video particularly usefull since W. Anderson is one of my favourite directors and I really admire his creations. I find everything in the video  really valuable on the journey to find my own style and in order to be able create interesting characters and endearing stories.

Here is my Ist version of the script. It is also my first script made with the use of Celtx which I find really useful and easy to work with (here is a link to the basic tutorial about using the program )

          NO TITLE (yet)



What I’m going for in this project is the teenage and mature audience, since my main character will be experiencing the mushroom trip. But the way the story is made also allows younger audience to watch it since there want be any straight forwad informations not suitable for children in it.


GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Animated GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

GIPHY. (2016). Trippy GIFs – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016]. (2016). BBC – Ethics – Lying. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

Bright Hub. (2016). Discussing the Differences Between Script Writing and Screenwriting. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016]. (2016). Monologue. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].



Research about the Bunnies and Trippy Stuff

Bunnies in animation

I decided to do a wide research about bunnies in animation in order to choose the right construction of my own character. I think it is really important to find the right construction in order to be able to animate it in the best way.

Rabbit – Winnie the Pooh

Rabbit is deffinitely a cartoon version of a bunny and his main facial expressions components are big eyes, eyebrows and ears. The rest of his face doesnt seem to have any bigger effect on the emotions presented. His amrs are like human  which gives them wide range of action available, and the legs are like bunny legs which make him hop which can become a bit inconvinient.

Petter Rabbit – The World of Peter Rabbit & Friends

Even thought Petter Rabbit is a good looking “copy” of a real bunny his facial expressions are nearly dead and everything depends on head and ears movement also his limbs are to short which could affect the animation.

Bunnies – Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit

Again those bunnies facial expressions are very limited and everything depends on ears. Also the limbs are kind of short to be easy to work with.

Thumper & his girl- Bambi

Those bunnies seem just perfect. The expressions are in eyes ears nose cheeks everything plays for the show. Still not a fun of short limbs. But facial expression nailed it. Il definitely try to construck similar face for my charcter.

Bugs Bunny – Looney Tunes

Bugs Bunny’s facial expressions are dependable on the same elements as Thumpers but he also has longer limbs since it’s an anthropomorphic, and this is something I’d like to do myself.

Roger Rabbit – Who Framed Roger Rabbit

Roger Rabbit is really simmilar to Bugs Bunny but he seems much more flexible I qould even say more cartoony. I think it would be a good thing to use some stretching in my animation to show the horror of the bad mushroom trip.

Alice in Wonderland

  • White Rabbit 

The 2D White Rabbit is not very expressive and his limbs are too short but hopefully there are other versions of the most famous rabbit in the world.

The 3D white rabbit is much more expressive and he looks a lot like a real rabbit but still his limbs are to short for me.Ev thought I think it is good to analyse the way he acts thus he is more like a real bunny and someone already spend a lot of time researching and developing his reactions.

  • March Hare

The March Hare is a perfect base for the mushroom trip bunny. His limbs are long enough and his expressions are good too. I’m pretty sure I will use it as one of my major references when animating.

Judy Hopps – Zootopia

I honestly think that Judy is the best animated character yet. She’s just so real and alive! Everything is moving! I’d love to be able to make my character like her but I don’t think I’m there yet. Anyway. Judy has long limbs very expressive face, and perfect bunny reactions to her surrounding. I will definitely use her as one of my main references.

Trippy Stuff and transitions

Merlin and Mim – The Sword in Stone

The transitions between characters that Merlin and Mim are changing can become very useful in the musrhoom trip bunny part.

Love and Theft

I think use a face transition could be rally interesting, again for the mushroom trip part

Anthony Francisco Schepperd – The Music Scene

Milions of trippy ideas. The transitions, colours, weird visions. Mushroom trip.


Jeffersons Airplane – White Rabbit

I think about using this song in the background for the trip part. As I think it would add more meaning to the film, especially that it comes from the trippiest time in the history.


The Story

After neverending research I made about hybrid animation and performance it is time for my story. As I said earlier I had a trouble with coming up with the idea worth a while but I finally got it.

My story starts in 3D and it’s about a bunny who like all the bunnies in the world ate something he was not supposed to. The thing he ate was a hallucinogenic mushroom which got him in to trouble. Bunnies name is Mr. Nibbles and we see him sat behind the table in the interrogation room. The other person in ther room is called Jeff and he’s a policeman/detective (we don’t really know which one) who tries to get any usefull informations out of Nibbles. He is  out of the audiences view. Everytime he asks Nibbles if he ate the mushroom bunny denies it. After a while a third person opens the door in to the interrogation room to inform Jeff that his boss is on the phone waiting for him (we also can’t see this). When Jeff leaves the room we start hearing Nibbles thoughts where he admitts that he ate the mushroom and complains that he doesn’t get all the fuss(it seems like he doesn’t realise what type of musrhoom he ate). While this is happening we see 2D objects (like little mushrooms and bubbles) starting to grow on him. When the mushroom trip kicks in he completely transformates in to the 2D bunny and starts seeing things. Everything is very trippy (I’m thinking about deforming bunny just a little). Near the end of the animation we see a door appear on the wall behind Nibbles. When it opens it reveals just a wall of fire which causes bunny to snapp, he jumps in to the air with his skin crawling, screaming that he ate the mushroom and  he just wants this to stop now.


Referencess: (2016). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Oct. 2016]. (2016). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Oct. 2016].


I spent 2 weeks researching to catch at least a glimpse of the idea. I had this thought that I would like to animate an anthropomorphic bunny in 3D then transitioning in to 2D. But I couldn’t think of the story. I dug through the whole internet, I saw so many weird things, and then on the sunday evening I got it. First I thought it’s brilliant, then I had doubts if it’s apropriate, in the end I decided to agree that no one will care hahaha…..

Alright then. Going through some videos with lie detector I somehow got to this one

And I just knew it was the one. My 3D bunny will eat some mushrooms and when the trip starts he will change in to 2D bunny and be all crazy.

I thought it would be good to understand how mushroom work and so I found this really useful video

So what have we found out that I could use:


  • visual
  • auditory
  • mystical/insightful feelings

-bad (terryfying and uncontrollable hallucinations) or good trip

-it’s harder to determine fantasy from reality

-planning ahead and self conscious thinking nearly impossible

-thinking outside of the box

-lasts between 3 – 8 hours (can feel long because mashrooms alter the sense of time)


Going with this trail I was trying to remember what things have I seen that contained a trip like that.

Cowboy Bebop

This is a calm version of a mushroom trip.  You can’t really see any special expressions on the characters faces, or any unusual movements. The only way we know something is odd it’s because of the actions they are taking. It’s not good enough for me to base my animation on it but it explains the problem a little.

Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas

This particular fragment of the film presents Raoul’s musrhoom trip, which seems to be an absolute nightmare. I’m guessing the reason for it is the absolutely horryfying amount of all sort of drugs he’s been using incessantly through the last year or so… The point is, he’s on the trip, the trip is loathing and thats what I need. Raoul’s facial mimicry is very overexagerated. Other than this he is sweating, his movement one time is very snapy and the other  is very vibrant sort of like a drunk person. He says things that make no sense and obviously feels hemmed.

Family Guy

If we are on the subject of a bad trip, this video is a perfect example. Unfortunately again we cant observe the adequate facial expressions but the Idea of hell and all of the creatures can be useful.

Pikachu on Acid

Even thought Pikachu is on acid instead of musrhooms it doesnt matter thus both things have similar effects. I find this video especially useful, it contains a few cool tricks I might want to use in my animation. Like when Pikachu’s eyes are stretching/dragging/smearing behind him, and him appearing as more than one charater, eyes as “screens” and him being very flexible even being able to take any shape he wants. And again the idea of monsters is quite cool.



“Girl riding the frog” – M. Trusz


Examples from the brief

Meet the Robinsons

watch from 2:06

The character who definitely deserves some attention is Michael “Goob” Yagooabian – a villain. Goob’s mimicry is just perfect, he is so expresive it made me feel like other characters are just too plain. His body expressions are very meaningful and  his long lanky limbs increase the performence by far, the movement is very theatrical which kind of remind me of Jack Sparrow.

Same goes for the facial expressions, they are really strong and easy to read, of course it wouldn’t happen if not for the way it’s constructed (everything is pronounced what makes it easier to manipulate), also nearly everything on his faces moves to express the feeelings he is going through at the moment.

14 Actors Acting

It’s a collection of short videos with 14 different  actors trying to show us what acting is in just a few gestures and a few props but without dialogue or additional story.

All of the videos have been strapped of the original sound which was replaced by the appropriate music expressing the mood of the piece.Also they have been all recorded in black and white. All this to prevent distraction from the acting.

I find all of the videos very interresting and I think the could prove themselves useful for this project and for the future ones, thus they help us to understand the visualisation of emotions.

I’ve chosen the two videos I liked the most as an example and as it happens they both show two ways of expressing the anger.

This video proves that sometimes less means better. I always knew that Michael Douglas is a great actor but this performance just nailed it. When we hear the word “anger” we normally picture a person shouting, shaking or other simmilar actions (like the next video). Up here we see that it’s not necessary and playing “calm” can make a much bigger impact on the audience. He is very steady, precise and cold. We don’t get the anger on the silver plate we have to wait for him to stop rubbing his fingers and look us straight in the eye. Looking from the psychological point of you I think this is how you make people scared. Works fine for me…

Matt Damon’s anger is just how I expected, very Matty Damony. Dramatic, pronounced. I would even say kind of proud. It’s a typical view on the growing anger. He definitely makes me feel less scared than Douglas but I feel like he could punch me at any moment (Douglas would send someone to take care of me and no one would ever hear of me ever again). He is very snappy and it seems like with every second the anger makes him inflate like a baloon. (But I do think he is making too many turnarounds).

11 Second Club

The 11 Second Club hosts a monthly character animation competition open to everyone. They provide the audio and expect you to animate with it. The winner gets a complete review about his piece of work from the professional animator. Every month the winner provides a great character performence in 2d or 3D.

I find those little videos especially usefull becuse it’s so many of them and they are really good, so you can easily catch some queues to improve your work.

Lets take a look at the few examples

Those videos 3D & 2D used the same audio recording and are made in different mediums. Personally I prefer the 3D version, I think it shows more of the talent and work put in to the piece but it was the 2D that won the competition.


In 3D grandad is very wobbly but also very sharp and ‘alive’ he is basicaly shaking with emotions and determination, when in 2D the goat is more steady but equally disapointed and emotional. The camera is steady and lets us concentrate on the character.


In 3D I think the bigest impact on the audience is making grandads umbrella, they way he waves it, as if he had a machine gun and was prepared to kill someone with it here and now. When in 2D the most important is the face, the snappines of the movement and the determined angry stomp. Of course the movement of the camera is also very important because it shows us the reason fo the goats anger.

Creature Comforts

Creature is a stop motion tv show presenting the series of interviews with animals. We can’t see the interviewer and the animals are talking to the camera which is the audience.

In this particular episode animals are talking about the things they hate. Animals can get really honest which leads to many weird situations – exactly like in the real life.

I’m not the biggest fan of this tv show because I find it kind of boring but it does present a variety of facial expresions and personalities. Also usually  animals are not moving so we can concentrate on the action of their faces and hands.

Summarizing all I’ve seen gives me the confidence that now I do understand how to make my future character perform in the interresting way and what is the most important at it. I start gathering some vague ideas in which direction I’d like to go and what would be most succesfull.

Referencess: (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016].

11 Second Club. (2016). ‘Grumpy McGrumperton’ from the December Competition. [online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016].

11 Second Club. (2016). ‘Epic Mountain Goats’ from the December Competition. [online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016].


Hybrid Animation Research Vol. II

Looking for inspiration I made much more research so here are some other examples of hybrid animation, not necessarily 2D with 3D

The Little Prince

I can easily say that this, is one of the most beautiful films I’ve ever seen. It’s a stop motion, 2D and 3D hybrid and everything in it is perfect (of course stop motion is sooo beautiful I wouldn’t mind the whole film to be made like that…). Every medium has been selected purposely.

3D symbolises the real life, it’s defined, solid and kept in cold colours.

2D has been used as help with the transition between 3D and stop motion to achieve the smooth conversion.


Stop motion has been chosen to create an imitation of life for the drawings from the book, which I find magnificent. Everything in there is very light, beautiful and kept in worm range of colours. The creation of characters is very faithful to the Saint-Exupery’s watercolour pictures made for the book, which is a key decision since the book is known not only for a story but in big a part for the drawings.

Near the end of the film we can see Little Prince in 3D but he is not a little boy anymore so I guess the part with stop motion also symbolises the inner child which many grown ups lack. And at the very end he is still in 3D but again as a boy – different cause now he’s more responsible and can appreciate things.

Who Framed Roger Rabbit

Another classic. Very amusing 2D and real live action hybrid movie dicercted by Robert Zemeckis and the mostly important Richard Williams author of “The Animator’s Survival Kit”. It is completely different thing to read the book and look at the pictures in it, than actually see everything moving. In the films humans and toons exist together. Most of the toons works at the animation studio and of course that is logical. It makes me think about the stop motion episode of Gravity Falls where a toon version of Ray Harryhausen (an old school stop motion guy) tells us that the puppets are not moved frame by frame but he uses black magic instead cause he’s not a masochist.

Ray Harryhausen with a few of his creations

The interactions between the mediums in this film are excellent. Of course they are certainly very time consuming but it was deffinitely worth it. Everything was made soo well that at some point we forget it’s not possible and we see everything like it’s absolutely normal thing to cooperate with live cartoon characters on the daily basis. The best way to explain is to use an example. So here it is the magnificent Jessica Rabbit’s pefrofmance.

Another great example of the same type of hybrid film would be

Space Jam

Looking at both of those films I get to the conclusion that this sort of hybrid is really succesfull of course as long as it is well made, and it would be really cool to have a go at making osmething like that one day.

Another plus of those film is that they both have cartoon anthropomorphic bunnies in them and there is a big space for a bunny in the idea shaping in my head so I will have a closer look at them while designing characters for my project.

References: (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. (2016). Watch The Little Prince Online Free Putlocker – Putlocker – Watch Movies Online Free. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. (2016). [online] Available at:*rwW5ydmmvZOy3BG1NHf-IQ.jpeg [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016].


Hybrid Animation Research Vol. I

I asked myself “What is hybrid animation” the answer seems easy, it’s an animation made by using 2d and 3d techiniques. But there is so many variations of it.

First I wanted to know the word from more experienced people. So I dug in to the internet to find out that it’s kinda hard to find anything useful in there. If you type “hybrid animation” you won’t get much… So I changed the way of doing things and tried to use my brain for a change.

I’ve seen so many films in my life, it’s really hard to find something I didn’t already see,  I tried to think of the films that could have used both D in them. And got it! My  most favourite film ever which made me wanna do animation, glorious TEKKONKINKREET. I always knew that this city was just too damn great

Here is a little explenation on how they made the city

So let’s say that this is the first type of hybrid animation – THE 3D BACKGROUND

Seems like a real time saver. It might take some time to build it but the advantage of manipulating it the way you want afterwards is amazing, also If you try hard you can make it look like it’s made in 2D and only experienced people will know your trick. And if we are talking about pretending that 3D is 2D the best example would be Makoto Shinkai the raising star of Japanese animation (the stuff he makes is just too perfect). I found this great interview in which he tells us quickly about the differences of 2d and 3d animation and how does he feel about them plus some other cool stuff. And as I say he is the master of pretending that everything is 2D even if through watching it you can’t believe that anyone could draw the whole film like this (just all those reflections and stuff).

The nex one would be – A CHARACTER WITH 2D & 3D PARTS

The great example are two moose brothers from Brother Bear. Rutt and Tuke have been all drawn in 2D except for their antlers which have been made in 3D cause animators had troubles with drawing them.

Same thing about John Silver’s arm from Treasure Planet. It would just take sooo much time (and money) to make this arm look right in 2D.

This is a great, making the life easier idea but I’m not sure if it’s a good choice for my project, all the hustle with motion tracking. I’ll have to think about it.


One of my favourite ever characters the Aladdin’s Magic Carpet.

Another really nice hybrid interraction in The Iron Giant

Great idea! Althought it might take a bit too much time to show the interraction between assets in the believable way I am definitely going to concider this option.

The last is – 2D CHANGING IN TO 3D ( or the other way around)

Wreck-it Ralph is one of my favourites animations ever! I just find the concept absolutely brilliant! It’s like someone took one of my childhood dreams and made it real. Games are alive in a different world? I’m buying it. Also it’s a great example for this type of hybrid animation. Oldschool arcade game characters and environement are seen on the screen as 2D pixel creatures but when looking from the inside of the arcade they are in 3D, looking more realistic and alive than ever.

I really, really like this idea (I might actually do something like this). It gives me a lot of space to show that I can handle both types of animation which is important since they are so different to each other. I don’t have to worry about the motion tracking or the interraction between mediums. Also it makes it easier if I can choose which part of the script I want to be in 2D and wich in 3D cause simply some things will be easier to make in one technique when the other things will scream for something else.

Additional research

Digging through the internet I found this pdf copy of a book by Tina O’Hailey called “Hybrid Animation Integrating 2D and 3D assets” althought I didn’t read it all (just some chosen pages) it seems like a really really usefull book explaining everything from pre-production to the technical side of the problem and I’m advising everyone interrrested in hybrid animation to read it (I’m planning on doing this on the christmas break)


O’Hailey, T. (2010). Hybrid animation. Burlington, MA: Focal Press.


Okay we are back and we’ve got stuff to do!untitled-1
Finally! We have much more than a month to make something and this is really exciting!
For some reason I always have problem with coming up with the idea straight away so I am really happy that I won’t be panicing because deadline is already on my head…
Also it is a really good opportunity to plan everything well, use more complex techniques and just show the best we can do.

I want to use first 2/3 weeks for pre-production like getting the idea, evolving it, writting a script, making a storyboard, doing research about body language and expressing emotions, understanding the way character becomes believeble and stops being an actor, recording some reference videos, recording voices and of course designing my charater and his

It’s a lot to do and a lot to learn but I can pull it up with the good time management (we had issue with that last year…). Also I think it’s necessary to know all those things like a palm of your hand in order to become better and because of that more desirable for the future employers and of course to feel like a more skillfull person and to be proud of yourself 😛

The project gives me the possibility to evolve my skills in 2D and 3D and even thought we were told that if we want we can work in only one chosen type of animation I’m planning on working with both types because I think they are equally important in the animation
industry and I would like to have many things to show in my portfolio in both techniques. Also I think it’s very important to feel comfortable in each of them and I need as much practise as possible.
My abitious plan says that I will finish the animation way before the deadline so I have alot of time for all the little redos which I’m sure will be needed (and I don’t want to panic in front of the pc because something rendered out wrong, deadline is in half an hour and I have no idea how to fix it. I left that drama in the 1st year and I hope it will stay in there forever….)

References: (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016].